###### Answer: point and line

However in order to use this concept of a ray in proofs a more precise definition is required. Given distinct points A and B they determine a unique ray with initial point A . As two points define a unique line this ray consists of all the points between A and B (including A and B ) and all the points C on the line through A and B such that …

In mathematics the polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a reference point and an angle from a reference direction. The reference point (analogous to the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system) is called the pole and the ray from the pole in the reference direction is the polar axis.

The function ( ) or ( ) (from “2-argument arctangent”) is defined as the angle in the Euclidean plane given in radians between the positive x axis and the ray to the point (x y) ≠ (0 0).. The function ( ) first appeared in the programming language Fortran (in IBM’s implementation FORTRAN-IV in 1961). It was originally intended to return a correct and unambiguous value for the …

This terms also denotes a common method of rendering 3D models in real time. Ray casting Rendering by casting non-recursive rays from the camera into the scene. 2D ray casting is a 2.5D rendering method. Ray marching Sampling 3D space at multiple points along a ray typically used when analytical methods cannot be used .: 157 Ray tracing

It is used by new in the allocation phase. It can be overridden per class or globally to define a specific memory allocator. Relation to malloc and free. Since standard C++ subsumes the C standard library the C dynamic memory allocation routines malloc calloc realloc and free are also available to C++ programmers. The use of these routines …

Powder diffraction is a scientific te…