[Answer] What relationship between the Sun and Earth did Copernicus formulate?

Answer: The Earth revolved in a circle about the Sun.
What relationship between the Sun and Earth did Copernicus formulate?

Copernican heliocentrism – Wikipedia

Copernican heliocentrism – Wikipedia

Copernican heliocentrism – Wikipedia

Copernican Revolution – Wikipedia

Copernican heliocentrism is the name given to the astronomical model developed by Nicolaus Copernicus and published in 1543. This model positioned the Sun at the center of the Universe motionless with Earth and the other planets orbiting around it in circular paths modified by epicycles and at uniform speeds. The Copernican model displaced the geocentric model of Ptolemy that had …

Copernican heliocentrism is the name given to the astronomical model developed by Nicolaus Copernicus and published in 1543. This model positioned the Sun at the center of the Universe motionless with Earth and the other planets orbiting around it in circular paths modified by epicycles and at uniform speeds. The Copernican model displaced the geocentric model of Ptolemy that had prevailed for centuries which had placed Earth at the center of the Universe. Copernican heliocentrism is often regarded as the launching point to modern astronomy and the Scientific Revolution. Although he had circulated an outline of his own heliocentric theory to colleagues sometime before 1514 he did not decide to publish it until he was urged to do so late in his life by his pupil Rheticus. Copernicus’s challenge was to present a practical alternative to the Ptolemaic model by more elegantly and accurately determining the length of a solar year while preserving the metaphysical implications of a mathematically ordered cosmos. Thus his heliocentric model retained several of the Ptolemaic elements causing inaccuracies such as the planets’ circular orbits epicycles and uniform speeds while at the same time introducing such innovative ideas as:- The Earth is one of several planets revolving around a stationary sun in a determined order.The Earth has three motions: daily rotation annual revolution and annual tilting of its axis.Retrograde motion of the planets is explained by the Earth’s motion.The distance from the Earth to the Sun is small compared to the distance from the Sun to the stars.

Antiquity Philolaus (4th century BCE) was one of the first to hypothesize movement of the Earth probably inspired by Pythagoras theories about a spherical moving globe.

Antiquity Philolaus (4th century BCE) was one of the first to hypothesize movement of the Earth probably inspired by Pythagoras theories about a spherical moving globe. Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BCE proposed what was so far as is known the first serious model of a heliocentric Solar System having developed some Heraclides Ponticus’ theories (speaking of a “revolution of the Earth on its axis” every 24 hours). Though his original text has been lost a reference in Archimedes book The Sand Reckoner (Archimedis Syracusani Arenarius & Dimensio Circuli) describes a work in which Aristarchus advanced the heliocentric model. Archimedes wrote: You [King Gelon] are aware the ‘universe’ is the name given by most astronomers to the sphere the center of which is the center of the Earth while its radius is equal to the straight line between the center of the Sun and the center of the Earth. This is the common account as you have heard from astronomers. But Aristarchus has brought out a book consisting of certain hypotheses wherein it appears as a consequence of the assumptions made that the universe is many ti…

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