[Answer] What is a sphere of influence?

Answer: exclusive trading rights
What is a sphere of influence?

A sphere of influence (SOI) in astrodynamics and astronomy is the oblate-spheroid-shaped region around a celestial body where the primary gravitational influence on an orbiting object is that body. This is usually used to describe the areas in the Solar System where planets dominate the orbits of surrounding objects such as moons despite the presence of the much more massive but distant Sun. In the patche…

A sphere of influence (SOI) in astrodynamics and astronomy is the oblate-spheroid-shaped region around a celestial body where the primary gravitational influence on an orbiting object is that body. This is usually used to describe the areas in the Solar System where planets dominate the orbits of surrounding objects such as moons despite the presence of the much more massive but distant Sun. In the patched conic approximation used in estimating the trajectories of bodies moving between the neighbourhoods of different masses using a two body approximation ellipses and hyperbolae the SOI is taken as the boundary where the trajectory switches which mass field it is influenced by. The general equation describing the radius of the sphere ${\displaystyle r_{SOI}}$ of a planet: ${\displaystyle r_{SOI}\approx a\left({\frac {m}{M}}\right)^{2/5}}$where ${\displaystyle a}$ is the semimajor axis of the smaller object’s (usually a planet’s) orbit around the larger body (usually the Sun). ${\displaystyle m}$ and ${\displaystyle M}$ are the masses of the smaller and the larger object (usually a planet and the Sun) respectively.In the patched conic approximation once an object leaves the planet’s SOI the primary/only gravitational influence is the Sun (until the object enters another body’s SOI). Because the definition of rSOI relies on the presence of the Sun and a planet the term is only applicable in a three-body or greater system and requires the mass of the primary body to be much greater than the mass of the secondary body. This changes the three-body problem into a restricted two-body problem.

The Sphere of influence is in fact not quite a sphere. The distance to the SOI depends on the angular distance ${\displaystyle \theta }$ from the massive body. A more accurate formula is given by ${\displaystyle r_{SOI}(\theta )\approx a\left({\frac {m}{M}}\right)^{2/5}{\frac {1}{\sqrt[{10}]{1+3\cos ^{2}(\theta )}}}}$

The Sphere of influence is in fact not quite a sphere. The distance to the SOI depends on the angular distance ${\displaystyle \theta }$ from the massive body. A more accurate formula is given by ${\displaystyle r_{SOI}(\theta )\approx a\left({\frac {m}{M}}\right)^{2/5}{\frac {1}{\sqrt[{10}]{1+3\cos ^{2}(\theta )}}}}$ Averaging over all possible directions we get ${\displaystyle {\overline {r_{SOI}}}=0.9431a\left({\frac {m}{M}}\right)^{2/5}}$

In the field of international relations a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural economic military or political exclusivity. While there may be a formal alliance or other treaty obligations between the influenced and influencer such …

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