[Answer] what is a cofactor?

Answer: a non protein part of the enzyme that some enzymes require to be active
what is a cofactor?

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme’s activity as a catalyst (a catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction). Cofactors can be considered “helper molecules” that assist in biochemical transformations. The rates at which these happen are characterized in an area of study called enzyme kinetics. Cofactors ty…

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme’s activity as a catalyst (a catalyst is a substance that increase s the rate of a chemical reaction). Cofactors can be considered “helper molecules” that assist in biochemical transformations. The rates at which these happen are characterized in an area of study called enzyme kinetics. Cofactors typically differ from ligands in that they often derive their function by remaining bound. Cofactors can be divided into two types: inorganic ions and complex organic molecules called coenzymes. Coenzymes are mostly derived from vitamins and other organic essential nutrients in small amounts. (Note that some scientists limit the use of the term “cofactor” to inorganic substances; both types are included here. ) Coenzymes are further divided into two types. The first is called a “prosthetic group” which consists of a coenzyme that is tightly or even covalently and permanently bound to a protein. The second type of coenzymes are called “cosubstrates” and are transiently bound to the protein. Cosubstrates may be released from a protein at some point and then rebind later. Both prosthetic groups and cosubstrates have the same function which is to facilitate the reaction of enzymes and proteins. An inactive enzyme without the cofactor is called an apoenzyme while the complete enzyme with cofactor is called a holoenzyme. (Note that the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) defines “coenzyme” a little differently namely as a low-molecular-weight non-protein organic compound that is loosely attached participating in enzymatic reactions as a dissociable carrier of chemical groups or electrons; a prosthetic group is defined as a tightly bound nonpolypeptide unit in a protein that is regenerated in each enzymatic turnover.) Some enzymes or enzyme complexes require several cofactors. For example the multienzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase at the junction of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle requires five organic cofac… Read more on Wikipedia

Cofactors can be divided into two major groups: organic cofactors such as flavin or heme ; and inorganic cofactors such as the metal ions Mg Cu Mn and iron-sulfur clusters . Organic cofactors are sometimes further divided into coenzymes and prosthetic groups . The term coenzyme refers specifically to enzymes and as such to the functional properties of a protein…

Cofactors can be divided into two major groups: organic cofactors such as flavin or heme ; and inorganic cofactors such as the metal ions Mg Cu Mn and iron-sulfur clusters . Organic cofactors are sometimes further divided into coenzymes and prosthetic groups . The term coenzyme refers specifically to enzymes and as such to the functional properties of a protein. On the other hand “prosthetic group” emphasizes the nature of the binding of a cofactor to a protein (tight or covalent) and thus refer…

Leave a Reply