[Answer] What can increase the risk of infection of external surfaces?

Answer: compromising the integrity of the skin (injections, surgery, etc) or
disturbance of mucosal defenses
What can increase the risk of infection of external surfaces?
Certain medications used to treat medical conditions such as antibiotics steroids and certain cancer fighting medications increase the risk of some types of infections . Lifesaving medical treatments and procedures used in healthcare such as urinary catheters tubes and surgery increase the risk of infection by providing additional ways that germs can enter the body.
Findings of these studies suggest that the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection via the fomite transmission route is low and generally less than 1 in 10 000 which means that each contact with a contaminated surface has less than a 1 in 10 000 chance of causing an infection 7 8 9. Some studies estimated exposure risks primarily using outdoor …
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Good evidence of the importance of environmental transmission is provided by a number of studies showing an increased risk of infection in patients admitted to side rooms previously occupied by other infected cases. This has been shown for C. difficile VRE and MRSA . Environmental norovirus contamination has been repeatedly found to be correlated with continuing outbreaks although the significance of this pathway has not been fully established.
And when microorganisms introduced from the skin of the patient at the catheter insertion site from a contaminated catheter hub or from hematogenous seeding of the device can attach to the device‚Äôs external surfaces a…

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