[Answer] Melatonin release from the pineal gland is stimulated by ________ and inhibited by ________.

Answer: darkness; light
Melatonin release from the pineal gland is stimulated by ________ and inhibited by ________.
In vertebrates melatonin is produced in darkness thus usually at night by the pineal gland a small endocrine gland located in the center of the brain but outside the blood–brain barrier. Light/dark information reaches the suprachiasmatic nuclei from retinal photosensitive ganglion cells of the eyes rather than the melatonin signal (as was once postulated). Known as “the hormone of darkness” the onset of melatonin at dusk promotes activity in nocturnal(night-active) animals and sleep in diurnal ones includin…
The primary function of the pineal gland is to produce melatonin. Melatonin has various functions in the central nervous system the most important of which is to help modulate sleep patterns. Melatonin production is stimulated by darkness and inhibited by light. Light sensitive nerve cells in the retina detect light and send this signal to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) synchronizing the SCN to the day-night cycle. Nerve fibers then relay the daylight information from the SCN to the paraventricular nuclei(PVN) …
The pineal gland is located in the diencephalon of the brain. It primarily releases melatonin which influences daily rhythms and may have an antigonadotropic effect …
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone – Wikipedia
N-Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase also known as ASMT is an enzyme which catalyzes the final reaction in melatonin biosynthesis: converting Normelatonin to melatonin . This reaction is embedded in the more general tryptophan metabolism pathway. The enzyme also catalyzes a second reaction in tryptophan metabolism: the conversion of 5-hydroxy-indoleacetate to 5-methoxy-indoleacetate.
Diminishing light stimulates the release of melatonin from the pineal gland which can also affect the secretion levels in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Melatonin can lower le…

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