###### Answer: C. 12

In mathematics the binary logarithm (log 2 n) is the power to which the number 2 must be raised to obtain the value n.That is for any real number x = =. For example the binary logarithm of 1 is 0 the binary logarithm of 2 is 1 the binary logarithm of 4 is 2 and the binary logarithm of 32 is 5.. The binary logarithm is the logarithm to the base 2.

In mathematics an inverse function (or anti-function) is a function that “reverses” another function: if the function f applied to an input x gives a result of y then applying its inverse function g to y gives the result x i.e. g (y) = x if and only if f ( x ) = y. The inverse function of f is also denoted as −.. As an example consider the real-valued function of a real variable given by f …

Inverse function – Wikipedia

Multiplicative inverse – Wikipedia

Multiplicative inverse – Wikipedia

In mathematics a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x denoted by 1/ x or x −1 is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity 1.The multiplicative inverse of a fraction a/b is b/a.For the multiplicative inverse of a real number divide 1 by the number. For example the reciprocal of 5 is one fifth (1/5 or 0 .2) and the reciprocal of 0 .25 is 1 …

To generate the key pair two polynomials f and g with degree at most − and with coefficients in {-1 0 1} are required. They can be considered…