[Answer] How do intracellular pathogens escape the immune system?

Answer: through the ability to survive within the host cell
How do intracellular pathogens escape the immune system?
Induction of cell death is one of the canonical strategies used by phagocytes to clear intracellular pathogens by expelling microbes from their replicative niche. Successful intracellular pathogens modulate different forms of cell death such as apoptosis pyroptosis necrosis/necroptosis and NETosis to evade host immune defense . Apoptosis is an active programmed cell death which does not induce inflammation but is dependent on sequential proteolytic activation of caspases.
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The pathogen dismantles the machinery by targeting it for degradation and thereby escapes the immune system’ says Robinson.
Research on the immune response against intracellular bacteria not only helps us to better understand how the immune system deals with “viable antigens” in constant trans-mutation it also forms the basis for the rational design of control measures for major health problems.
However many pathogens manage to escape the immune system by invading cells and replicating within them. To counter these pathogens immune cells produce a powerful cytokine called interferon-γ that reprograms the invaded cells to express hundreds of antimicrobial proteins. These proteins transform the cells into a hostile environment for pathogens.
Antigenic variation allows pathogens to escape from immunity One way in which an infectious agent can evade immune surveillance is by altering its antigens; this is particularly important for extracellular pathogens against which the principal defense is the production of antibody against their surface structures.
Various bacterial pathogens can escape our immune sy…

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