###### Answer: Nuclear fusion plays an important role in making elements that are heavier than helium.

Equations often contain terms other than the unknowns. These other terms which are assumed to be known are usually called constants coefficients or parameters.. An example of an equation involving x and y as unknowns and the parameter R is + =. When R is chosen to have the value of 2 (R = 2) this equation would be recognized in Cartesian coordinates as the equation for the circle of radius …

The bicarbonate buffer system is an acid-base homeostatic mechanism involving the balance of carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ) bicarbonate ion (HCO − 3 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2) in order to maintain pH in the blood and duodenum among other tissues to support proper metabolic function. Catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase carbon dioxide (CO 2) reacts with water (H 2 O) to form carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 …

An important part of determining bending moments in practical problems is the computation of moments of force. Let be a force vector acting at a point A in a body. The moment of this force about a reference point (O) is defined as= × where is the moment vector and is the position vector from the reference point (O) to the point of application of the force (A).

The principle of maximum entropy states that the probability distribution which best represents the current state of knowledge is the one with largest entropy in the context of precisely stated prior data (such as a proposition that expresses testable information).. Another way of stating this: Take precisely stated prior data or testable information about a probability distribution function.

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a branch of thermodynamics that deals with physical systems that are not in thermodynamic equilibrium but ca…